By Berdanier, Carolyn D
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Department of Health and Human Services. These surveys have collected data not only from young adult men and women but also from children and aging adults. These weights and heights have been used to create tables giving weight ranges for males and females. In addition, NHANES made more detailed measurements of skinfold thickness, skeletal size and density, and a variety of biochemical and physiological features using a representative subset of the population assessed. The NHANES tables therefore have a broader database than the Metropolitan Life Insurance tables.
Both cell types have stored lipid droplets that, if sufficiently large, can push all of the other organelles off to the side of the cell. In contrast to the white cell depots, the brown fat depots are highly innervated and vascularized. This increase in vascularization gives the depot its brownish color and name. 48 Whereas white depots are distributed throughout the body, brown depots are found in just a few locations. Brown fat cells, if allowed to accumulate lipid, may change in appearance and look like white fat as the lipid droplets enlarge.
As glucose is less available from the gut, the body begins to mobilize its glycogen stores and when they are close to being depleted, the body will begin to mobilize its stores of triacylglycerol and, to a lesser extent, its body protein. It can use certain of the amino acids and glycerol from the triacylglycerols to synthesize glucose via gluconeogenesis and utilize the carbon skeletons of deaminated amino acids plus the fatty acids liberated from the triacylglycerols for fuel. In 1915, Benedict,59 in an extensive monograph on the metabolic responses to starvation, reported that the body carbohydrate (glycogen and glucose) provided only a small fraction of the total fuel needed for maintenance.