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By H. Perraton

International scholars have travelled to Britain for hundreds of years and, from the start, attracted controversy. This publication explores altering British coverage and perform, and altering pupil event, set in the context of British social and political heritage.

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Extra resources for A History of Foreign Students in Britain

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Universities were benefiting from the presence of foreign students and teachers, and sometimes acknowledged the benefits. They accepted, even welcomed, foreign students though not always treating them as equals. For its part the state had shown its determination to exercise some control over foreign students, as over immigrants generally, and needed to be reassured of their loyalty. Ideology, as represented by the competing mendicant orders, was already promoting Internationalism Reshaped, 1185–1800 25 and financing student mobility, and arousing opposition as it did so.

Authority now came definitively from the crown and not the church so that Cambridge could no longer rely on the papal bull of 1318 with which it had previously justified its authority and privileges. These sixteenth-century changes amounted to what might be called the ‘Englishing’ of Oxford and Cambridge. Before the Tudor period they were, like the Church itself, part of a non-English Internationalism Reshaped, 1185–1800 27 universal community. 36 In practice the universities retained some of their privileged independence from state control.

In 1885 the proportion of outsiders was still only 16 per cent, although Australia and New Zealand were now sending a trickle of students, and the Indian contingent was increasing. 13 London and the provincial universities are less well documented but the figures from Scotland follow the same trend. Among the Scottish universities Edinburgh always had the largest proportion from overseas which increased from 9 per cent of the total in 1870 to 16 per cent in 1900. 14 It seems safe to conclude that, across the whole country, there was a marked increase in absolute numbers of students from abroad during the century and that the proportion increased from around 5 to around 10 per cent of the total, suggesting that there were some 2,000 of them by 1900.

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