By Edwin S. Hunt, James Murray
A heritage of commercial in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550, demolishes the generally held view that the word "medieval business" is an oxymoron. The authors evaluate the whole variety of industrial in medieval western Europe, probing its Roman and Christian history to find the industrial and political forces that formed the association of agriculture, production, building, mining, transportation, and advertising. Then they care for the responses of businessmen to the devastating plagues, famines, and conflict that beset Europe within the overdue center a long time. Medieval businessmen's impressive good fortune in dealing with this antagonistic new setting ready the best way for the industrial enlargement of the 16th century.
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Contributors: Kathleen Biddick, U of Notre Dame; Michael Camille, U of Chicago; Marilynn Desmond, Binghamton U; Garrett P. J. Epp, U of Alberta; Gregory S. Hutcheson, U of Louisville; Karma Lochrie, Indiana U; Peggy McCracken, U of Michigan; Francesca Canadé Sautman, Hunter collage and the CUNY Graduate heart; Larry Scanlon, Rutgers U; Susan Schibanoff, U of recent Hampshire; Pamela Sheingorn, Baruch university and the CUNY Gratuate heart; and Claire Sponsler, U of Iowa.
Glenn Burger is affiliate professor of English at Queens university, CUNY. Steven F. Kruger is professor of English at Queens collage and the CUNY Graduate middle.
A heritage of commercial in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550, demolishes the commonly held view that the word "medieval business" is an oxymoron. The authors overview the total diversity of industrial in medieval western Europe, probing its Roman and Christian historical past to find the commercial and political forces that formed the association of agriculture, production, building, mining, transportation, and advertising.
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Extra info for A History of Business in Medieval Europe, 1200-1550 (Cambridge Medieval Textbooks)
Here, the lords – monasteries, princes, knights – offered peasants special privileges and power over newly won agricultural land. These “assarts” always gave peasants increased rights to the crops they produced, in the form of either reduced labor services owed or an increased share of the crop. Such incentives caused settled rural communities to chip away constantly at the surrounding forest, bringing more and more of it under the plow. The gradual expansion of existing settlements was only one form taken by the opening of the medieval wilderness.
Before the Black Death The High Middle Ages was a period of considerable building activity throughout western Europe in town and country, some of it on a monumental scale. Between and , some eighty cathedrals, large churches, and , parish churches were built in France alone. The rapidly expanding towns repeatedly encircled themselves with walls of increasing extent; for example, Florence’s third set of walls, completed in the early fourteenth century, enclosed five times the area of its second set, built in the late twelfth century.
The term was for several years, the exact length of time depending upon location, training needed to acquire the necessary skill, economic conditions, and relationship to the owner. During that time, the master assumed a parental role, with responsibility for the apprentice’s morals as well as his education. At the end of the period, the apprentice might be given a small sum or, in certain crafts such as turners and masons, a set of tools. He might then become a master in his own business or go out to work for a wage.